B Corporation assesses companies on their entire environmental and social performance. It certifies companies as B-Corp when business models and operations have a demonstrable positive impact on workers, the environment, the community, and customers. 

e.g. B Corporation’s certified B Corps are helping to redefine business success by valuing people and the planet as highly as profit.



Something that breaks down or decays naturally without any scientific treatment.

e.g. Some things are naturally biodegradable, like food and plants.



An innate affinity of humans to seek connections with nature.

e.g. Considering biophilia when designing indoor spaces has been found to support cognitive function, physical health, and psychological well-being.



A substance obtained from a plant, typically extracted to produce textile materials, medicinal or cosmetic products.

e.g. The brand’s natural dye capsule collection explored the use of botanical dyes derived from plants.

Carbon Neutral Building


Carbon-neutral building is an outcome of a design, construction or use, created by reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions to be balanced by initiatives so that the overall net carbon footprint is zero.

e.g. To achieve a carbon-neutral building, the usage of green electricity is a sustainable way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Carbon footprint


An estimate of the amount of greenhouse gases produced to support our day-to-day life. It can be calculated for a person, event, service, or product. On a larger scale, companies, businesses, even countries all produce a carbon footprint.

e.g To lower your carbon footprint, consider avoiding car journeys as each litre of fuel burnt in a car engine emits over 2.5 kg of CO2 and choose walking or cycling.



A certified product, process, material or service has been verified (usually by an external body) and is guaranteed to have certain attributes.

e.g. Certified B Corporations are businesses that meet the highest standards of verified social and environmental performance and public transparency.

Circular economy


The circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing, remanufacturing, and recycling materials and products as long as possible. This implies minimizing waste and pollution and reducing the use of new resources. As in nature, everything is transformed and finds a new purpose. It is in contrast with the traditional linear model, based on a take-make-dispose pattern.

e.g. The company wants to accelerate the transition to a circular economy.

Collective Action


When a group of people takes action together in order to accomplish a shared objective.

e.g. The activists took collective action to campaign for more environmentally friendly initiatives in their local area.

Cradle to Cradle Certified®


Global product certification based on five pillars; material health, material reutilization, Renewable Energy & carbon management, water stewardship, and social fairness. In order to obtain the certification, an Accredited Verification Body assesses the product eligibility and the C2C Institute reviews it. After the Certification Agreement has been signed, the Institute determines if the product can obtain the certification and the level of the certification awarded.

Reference: c2ccertified.org

Cradle to cradle


Cradle to cradle has emerged as another term for circularity. It is a play on the phrase, “cradle to grave” which suggests a high-waste linear business model. A cradle to cradle model designs out waste, either through the use of biodegradable materials that will return to nature’s cycles, or keeping materials in use in a cycle of use and re-use, optimising original resource use, avoiding waste, and reducing the production of virgin raw materials.

e.g. An increasing number of product designers are combatting waste through cradle to cradle design and production.



The level of traditional and typically manual skill involved in a product or material. 
e.g. The rapid rise of fast fashion and its industrial processes has led to the decline of some traditional craftsmanship.

Eco Design


Designing a material or product whilst considering environmental sustainability. A product’s environmental impact can be reduced through material and production process selection, typically relating to resource consumption or pollution.
e.g. The carpet is made from upcycled materials that have been naturally dyed and reassembled therefore it is considered an eco-design due to its low environmental impact.

End of usage


When a product or material has reached the full potential of its current use, it enters a phase called end of usage and it could be disposed of.

e.g. To reduce the potential negative environmental impacts of end of usage products, manufacturers, and consumers should consider recycling or repurposing items giving them new uses.

Ethical Labor


Fair and decent working conditions, covering areas including health and safety, equality and anti-discrimination, unionization, and employee wellbeing.
e.g. Ethical labor is a crucial element of social sustainability and means of upholding the human rights of people working in global supply chains.

Female Empowerment


Ensuring females have the capacity and opportunities necessary to fully participate in society, through equal opportunities, autonomous choices, having their voices heard.

e.g. The brand partnered with a female empowerment charity to support and educate marginalised girls.

Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS)


A standard that focuses on organic fibre production, which includes chemical, ecological and social criteria throughout the textile supply chain, which is then verified an independent certification body. GOTS certification can be applied to any textile product, including fabrics, yarns and finished goods.

Reference: global-standard.org

Greenhouse Gases (GHG)


Greenhouse gases are gases naturally present in the athmosphere like water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3) among others. They contribute to mantaining the Earth’s heat and they warm the Earth by absorbing energy and slowing the rate at which the energy escapes in to space. The gases act like a blanket insulating the Earth, and is called the Greenhouse effect. Without it the Earth’s temperature would be 30 degrees cooler.

e.g. CO2 is the GHG most commonly produced by human activities and it is responsible for 64% of man-made global warming.

Healthy Seas Member


A Company committed to preserving the marine environment and supporting the Healthy Seas Foundation by raising awareness about preserving our seas, preventing fishing net waste, collecting damaging marine plastics, and ensuring they are transformed into a valuable resource.

e.g. Healthy Seas Members are helping drive consumer awareness of plastic pollution in the seas.

Local Production


When a commodity is produced in a short, localised supply chain, stimulating the local economy, generating job opportunities, and reducing international transportation emissions.

e.g. Local production is a key way to foster skill and employment, as well as reducing the carbon footprint of a product.

Made in Green by OEKO-TEX®


A traceable product label for a variety of textiles and leather products (e.g. garments, finished and semi-finished leathers) including non-textile/-leather components (e.g. accessories). The MADE IN GREEN label verifies that an article has been tested for harmful substances. It also guarantees that the textile or leather product has been manufactured using sustainable processes under socially responsible working conditions.

Reference: oeko-tex.com

Made in Italy


A prestigious label that indicates a product has been designed and produced in Italy, showcasing heritage craftsmanship, high quality, and timeless elegance.
e.g. A garment designed by an Italian team and produced by hand, locally in Milan, is Made in Italy.



Tiny pieces of plastic particles smaller than 5 millimetres in diameter, deriving from a variety of sources including larger plastic pieces that have broken apart, resin pellets used for plastic manufacturing, or in the form of microbeads used in beauty products.

e.g. Plastic debris can come in all shapes and sizes, but those that are less than 5 millimetres long (or about the size of a sesame seed) are called “microplastics”.

Modular Concept


Designs made up from several standardised components, which can have multiple functionality. Modular design concepts can extend useful life through allowing targeted mending and facilitating design for disassembly.

e.g. The modular concept of the bag means that if the bag strap is worn out, it can be easily mended by an identical bag strap replacement.

Naked Packaging


It refers to a total absence of packaging on a product, or the use of very minimal packaging.

e.g. Many products, from food to beauty, are often wrapped in excess packaging. By reducing or removing it completely, making the product “naked”, we can avoid unnecessary waste.



Often but not exclusively related to food, the term refers to farmed produce and materials grown avoiding the use of man-made fertilisers and pesticides.

e.g. When products are treated with natural fertilisers and without pesticides, they are organic.



PEOPLE FOR THE ETHICAL TREATMENT OF ANIMALS (PETA) is an animal rights organization, aiming at raising awareness and advocacy, as well as calling for big companies to address animal welfare concerns in food, clothing, and clothing trade industry as well as in the entertainment business.

Reference: peta.org



To take an existing material and process it into a new product, through chemical or mechanical processes.

e.g. The take-back scheme was launched to collect old garments and recycle the materials.

Recycled Claim Standard (RCS)


A global product and materials certification focused on verifying the presence of recycled raw materials through a chain of custody system. After an initial assessment of the product and its components, the segregation of RCS certified recycled fibres is verified through an audit, ensuring the correct management of the production process and compliance with the certification criteria.

Reference: textileexchange.org

Renewable Energy


Energy that has been derived from earth’s natural resources that are non – exhaustible or capable of continuous replenishment. Renewable energy is an alternative to the traditional energy that relies on fossil fuels, and it tends to be much less harmful to the environment.

e.g. The six most recognised sources of renewable energy are solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, ocean and biomass.



To repurpose something is to adjust the use of an item and extend its useful life, instead of disposing of it. Repurposing something is to use it again by adapting, reprocessing, or regenerating it – and making use of it for a different function.

e.g. It is possible to repurpose glass bottles and jars giving them another life as vases and candle holders.

Responsible Packaging


Packaging intended for consumers and businesses that has been designed with sustainability in mind and has a lower environmental impact than traditional forms of packaging, such as single-use plastic. 

e.g. Single-use plastic packaging has a significant environmental impact and it is important that we look to alternative materials and models.

SDGS Applicable


When a product is designed to adhere to one or more of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals.

e.g. This garment was produced ethically and made to order, fulfilling the 12th UN SDG of Responsible Consumption and Production.



The Sustainable Development Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals defined and adopted by United Nations Member States in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The goals focus on ending poverty, protecting the planet, and ensuring peace, and can be used by independent governments to develop legislative plans of action, or by brands and citizens as a set of goals to align practice with.

e.g. The brand aligned its environmental sustainability strategy with 5 of the SDGs.



A second-hand item is a product that has already been owned or used by others. It can be resold or given as a gift to someone else to extend the life of the product.
Among the benefits of buying second-hand is finding unique items, saving costs, helping the environment and preserving natural resources.

e.g.  A second-hand garment can be a unique piece for one’s closet.

Sharing Economy


An economic model focused on sharing or providing access to underutilised goods and services, generally facilitated through online platforms. It is a flexible peer-to-peer network that can be used to combat overconsumption, resource and material waste, and the perception of ownership; instead encouraging community engagement and sustainability.

e.g. The new report published by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation cites a sharing economy as a possible solution to sustainability issues in the fashion industry because it can reduce overproduction through utilising existing materials.

Size Inclusive


Sizing that is representative of a wider range of body types, including shape, height, and size, as well as ensuring a range of body types is represented in marketing.

e.g. Size inclusivity is a celebration of all body types on the runway and in retail.

Supply Chain


The entire journey from raw material to final product or service including the sourcing, transformation or creation and delivery to final consumers.

e.g Supply chains whether they are local or global, add value at every stage and provide employment in multiple sectors.

Supporting Communities


Engaging with communities locally or remotely through a range of socially beneficial initiatives, typically relating to job creation, environmental conservation, housing, education, or financial and medical support.

e.g. Supporting indigenous communities is essential for protecting their land and securing their way of life.



The ability to track a supply chain or material back to its origins to see the movement of materials and the locations of production and manufacturing facilities. Traceability is a key challenge faced by globalised supply chains, however recent advancements in technology including fibres forensically traced to farm, and clothing microchips that can show the complete fabric to garment supply chain, can help highlight potential social and environmental risks in the countries involved.

e.g. To improve traceability in its supply chain, the brand’s new supplier code of conduct prohibits unofficial subcontracting and requires the names and addresses of all producers and manufacturers.

Triple Bottom Line


The triple bottom line – aka TBL or 3BL – is a sustainability-based accounting method focused on people and the planet as well as profit. Organizations consider their economic, social, and environmental impact to create greater value for both their shareholders and society.

e.g. When aiming to adhere to a Triple Bottom Line approach, brands should focus beyond economic growth and also consider social and environmental concerns.



When a product is vegan, it does not contain any animal-based materials.

e.g. Vegan leather alternatives have emerged in response animal welfare issues, and traceability concerns linked to animal leather.



An aspirational approach to recycling where items that cannot be recycled are disposed of into recycling bins.

e.g. Disposing of used pizza boxes to be recycled without the correct knowledge is wishcycling.

Zero Waste


A set of principles devised to prevent waste through design, production processes or lifestyle choices.

e.g. In order to combat waste, the designer experimented with zero waste pattern cutting.



Global product certification system that is focused on safe use and sustainability labeling of chemicals used in fabrics. To obtain the certification a company must use approved chemicals, that have been selected for the bluesign® criteria, according to their low environmental impact.

Reference: bluesign.com